In silico prediction of human clinical pharmacokinetics with ANDROMEDA by Prosilico – Predictions for a proposed benchmarking data set and new small drugs on the market 2021 and comparison with laboratory methods
Fagerholm U, Hellberg S, Alvarsson J and Spjuth O..
In silico prediction of human clinical pharmacokinetics with ANDROMEDA by Prosilico – Predictions for a proposed benchmarking data set and new small drugs on the market 2021 and comparison with laboratory methods.
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals. 51, 1, 39-54. (2023). DOI: 10.1177/02611929221148447
There is an ongoing aim to replace animal and in vitro laboratory models with in silico methods. Such replacement requires the successful validation and comparably good performance of the alternative methods. We have developed an in silico prediction system for human clinical pharmacokinetics, based on machine learning, conformal prediction and a new physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model, i.e. ANDROMEDA. The objectives of this study were: a) to evaluate how well ANDROMEDA predicts the human clinical pharmacokinetics of a previously proposed benchmarking data set comprising 24 physicochemically diverse drugs and 28 small drug molecules new to the market in 2021; b) to compare its predictive performance with that of laboratory methods; and c) to investigate and describe the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the modern drugs. Median and maximum prediction errors for the selected major parameters were ca 1.2 to 2.5-fold and 16-fold for both data sets, respectively. Prediction accuracy was on par with, or better than, the best laboratory-based prediction methods (superior performance for a vast majority of the comparisons), and the prediction range was considerably broader. The modern drugs have higher average molecular weight than those in the benchmarking set from 15 years earlier (ca 200 g/mol higher), and were predicted to (generally) have relatively complex pharmacokinetics, including permeability and dissolution limitations and significant renal, biliary and/or gut-wall elimination. In conclusion, the results were overall better than those obtained with laboratory methods, and thus serve to further validate the ANDROMEDA in silico system for the prediction of human clinical pharmacokinetics of modern and physicochemically diverse drugs.